Stressed out? It is perfectly normal to get overwhelmed sometimes and to search for healthy ways to relieve stress. One of the most popular methods this year that many adults are discovering is coloring for grown ups! While you may remember coloring books from your fond childhood memories, you are about to discover a whole new way to engage with this great pastime. Adult coloring books are being produced and purchased in massive amounts. What makes these coloring pages so beloved? The books are filled with black and white designs that feature intricate patterns and images. That is what truly sets them apart from the coloring of your childhood – the complexity of the pages and the level of focus and engagement required to complete them. The rise in popularity is due to the worldwide search for passive and enjoyable activities to help adults like you relax. If coloring for adults sounds like something you’d love, then playing casino games at an online casino is another excellent way to have fun, wind down, and even win online casino real money! With bright, colorful graphics, you will experience similar thrills and stimulation as you would by completing a beautiful coloring page. Check out some online casinos today, and enjoy your relaxation time like never before!
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For better online casino real money luck, try cat memes and maze puzzles
Most people who enjoy the online casino real money games for fun and pleasure do so in their spare time, in between meetings or when on the way to work or at home in the evening and sometimes even on holiday. The games are available around the clock and provide the player with an excellent avenue for leisure and pleasure. One of the nicest things about the online casino for real money is that the player may review all of the games before deciding which ones he wants to play and apart from the progressive games, he can also try out the games for fun and practice. New players are welcomed with a generous sign up bonus offer that matches the first few deposits made by the player and these are followed up with many other promotions and special offers. Prior to playing the real money casino games players can prepare themselves in other ways such as looking at the cat memes or the online puzzles that are offered. These are all free to look at and the mazes and puzzles are free to try out and solve. The players do not need to place bets in order to enjoy the cat memes and they do not need to pay in order to look at a maze but the player does not receive any special bonsues when solving online puzzles and mazes or looking at the cat memes, all he receives is a satisfaction. The combination of the real money online casino preceded by the cat memes or the online puzzles works well as it gets the player ready for the games but does not offer him anything more apart from the fun aspect. For the real money bets and real money wins, the player needs to play the real money online casino games.
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Happiness – Its Importance For Brain Functionality and Casino Games
There are a lot of things which can affect brain functionality, for good or bad. Although it is important to know the bad things which can deteriorate brain functionality, now it is the time to focus on the positive things, which have greatest chances of improving it. Another question which is very relevant is – why improving brain functionality is so important? As it turns out, the more people are capable of improving this functionality, the more they are capable of making many other things in their lives work well. No matter if people are interested in getting better in their studies and getting higher scores, improving their working methods, or simply being better at committing the activities which make them have most fun possible. One way or another, it seems that being able to improve brain functionality is great for any given cause. In addition to that, it has also been proven that the more people improve their brain functionality, the better they get at real money online casino games, and the more satisfied they can get by playing them. Some people for example, choose to do some sports in order to bring more oxygen to their bodies, and increase the effectiveness of blood circulation. With that being said, some casino players decided to cover this topic the best way possible, in order to find which activities, which can be highly beneficial for brain functionality, are also highly favoured among as many casino gamers as possible. Surely, it is no wonder that a lot of different activities have been found as beneficial and favoured, but at the end of the day, the researchers have decided to extract from the results the answers that kept on being reported by players. The first answer which could be very helpful for people who are very interested in drawing more happiness into their lives, was to look at funny cat GIFs which can be found over the internet. In these days, finding such cat memes is definitely easier than ever before, as the offering is getting larger and larger with every day passing by, and that players are getting to be more and more alert to the effectiveness of these memes and GIFs, and therefore choose to share them with their friends and acquaintances. The memes can make some people laugh, and other people smile, while some of those who will look at the picture would simply enjoy a positive inner feeling in their bodies. One way or another, it is important to remember that the memes can do so much more than simply make a person happy. It is widely known today that the happier and more satisfied a person feels during the day, and night, the better his or her brain functions and the greater the person’s chances to be successful at committing different activities get. People who understood this concept have started to look for additional activities which would bring most happiness and contentment into their lives. These findings have also been discovered in the mentioned surveys and researches, and were found to be looking at celebrity caricatures. These caricatures are also beneficial in many occasions with making people feel good about themselves, and there is absolutely no doubt that with the same emotional result would come the same overall effect. Another thing that has shown to be highly effective in this field was to solve top art mazes which can make people feel happy once they succeed in solving them. Surely, each and everyone of these activities, including all of them one by the other, has great chances in making people victorious once playing real money online casino games.
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Get your mobile casino with a side order of cat and maze
If you really want to know all there is about mobile gaming, you need to be informed. There is no doubt that the mobile casino is the latest and greatest pastime of this decade. When the mobile casinos were originally introduced they were certainly not seen as the future of gaming, over time the software engineers have made tremendous produce and the mobile casino games of today are simply fantastic. The ongoing improvement of the smart phones and the plethora of high quality tablets that have saturated the market have resulted in many players choosing their mobile devices as the ultimate way to enjoy casino games. You can choose to play the games by downloading them onto your mobile device or you can purchase the mobile casino apps. Funding your mobile casino is a breeze and many of the payment options that are used at the online casino can be utilized at the mobile casino as well. When it comes to the game selection some online casinos have a smaller range of games to offer mobile players whilst other casinos offer the same games at both the online and the mobile casino. The quality of the mobile games and the ease of playability is the same at both f the casinos. In fact, many players point out that the game play at the mobile casino is actually a lot smoother and more enjoyable due to the touch screen function of the mobile device. If you have ever spent time at a land based casino you will notice that playing at the mobile casino is more akin to the mobile casino experience than online casino gaming. If you want to make the most of your mobile gaming session, do not just limit yourself to playing whilst you are on the go and trying to fill in some time, make a morning or an evening of it. I regularly spend an hour or two on Sunday morning relaxing with my all time favorite pastimes. This includes completing a maze or two by the greatest maze artist known to man – Yanito Freminoshi. If you are a fan of mazes and even if you have never completed a maze in your life, make sure you check out Yanito’s free printable mazes available online. After my maze session I get comfortable under the covers with Mollie the cat and enjoy some of the greatest casino games known to man directly from my mobile phone! Log on today and get playing.
Mobile Casinos and Mazes
There’s nothing better than rewarding yourself with a quiet and fun evening after a long day of work. Many people love to sit back and relax with their cats after an exhausting day, but sometimes they think that it means they won’t have anything interesting to do and so they give up on this peaceful moment. But alas, they are wrong as there are plenty of things a person could do without leaving the comfort provided to him by his own home. If desired, a person can always solve some unique mezes that would help him recharge his batteries. One of the most creative maze artists is Yanito Freminoshi, whose work is admired by many and is being presented at art galleries and museums all around the world. Freminoshi’s mazes can also be found for free anywhere on the web, allowing everyone to enjoy his work without any restrictions. Furthermore, there are many great mobile casinos that can interest a person who wants a quiet yet exiting evening at home. As these casinos can be accessed via any up-to-date smartphone or tablet, it is something that can be done without leaving the comfort of the blanket, while cuddling with the cat. There are many different mobile casino games and anyone can find a specific game that would be interesting and lucrative enough for him. Altogether, the experience provided by solving mazes and checking out different mobile casinos can transform a persons’ evening into an exciting adventure within moments without any effort.
The Thrill Is Near
The thrill is right across the corner and once you figure out what true happiness is made of, you can definitely create it for yourself day and night! It turns out everybody wants to have a good life, to enjoy what they are doing and to live their life the very best way they can. Therefore, once you hold the keys for the real joy – nothing in the world could stop you from getting wherever it is that you want to get. Are you ready for it? The very first activity that is constantly top rated as incredible by a lot of people all around the world is the act of solving mazes. Mazes, while correctly solved, make a person feel he his incredible at what he does, and more successful than what he previously thought. If you are looking for a quality source of multiple mazes, which will be available for you for free, you better check out the mazes Yanito Freminoshi created. His mazes were created as part of the free mazes project and you will be able to find thousands of mazes in a lot of different subjects. The mazes are considered as maze art and you will definitely love them! Now, it is only a matter of time until you become a pro in solving them! Are you a pro? It is time to level up! Start playing slots games at mobile casinos as well as pet your cat! It turns out people who can do all these activities at the same time feel vital and happy day and night! Vitality, at the end of the day, is one of the most important feelings in a person’s life. Do you remember yourself at times you didn’t feel vital? Researches show that people who don’t feel vital don’t progress in life and in many cases are not interested in social relationship and in many other activities. However, people who feel they are vital usually like go out and dance, hang around with friends and even earn a lot of money. People who report high levels of vitality know that they can accomplish any goal they choose in their life, and that it is completely possible for them to be better and better with each day passing by! If you want to really enjoy your life, don’t let yourself go! Do all the activities that are fun for you, experience the sensation of vitality and seize each moment as if it was your last!
Soccer Maze Solved
What sorts of games do you like to play? Do you enjoy playing with your cat?
At the deepest part of ourselves, we are mostly children. Nice kids who enjoy playing all different sorts of games and want to feel happy and free. You can decide to play one game for one day, and then a totally different game on the other day. You can start participating in a group game, or play solo, and no matter if you play on your own or with one of your best friends, you mostly want to enjoy yourself and to have some fun. Games are awesome and they have been out there for very long time. For decades and centuries if not for eras, and it is very probable that even during the stone age people found themselves enjoying all sorts of games. No matter if you are an adult, adolescent or a child, the happiness attributed to playing is never over and we better understand it and let ourselves have a lot of fun, while giving ourselves the option to play what really makes us excited! So, what makes you feel the thrill? What makes your friends really excited? What kind of games other people all over the world really prefer for the past few years, and what you like to try out if you were looking for something new? Most probably, if you want to listen to what most gamers have to say, then the pokies games would be the right thing for you. Pokies games are wonderful since they easily combine all sorts of things gamers really enjoy doing and having. The unexpected results of the different spins, as well as the little sense of control attributed to the gaming features will quickly let you feel you are the one to master the game and be as surprised as relaxed since everything is in your hands now. If you really want to find all of the most relevant pokies games, then you would like to consider looking for other terms as you surf the web. “Online slots in Australia” and “Australian online slots” surely do work much better than the “pokies” do, and they easily tend to bring back a lot of relevant results. That is why gamblers refer to pokies but actually write slots when they chat online. In addition to that, another kind of game or small challenge you most probably want to add to your life is solving a maze or two before, after or during the act of solving mazes. The mazes created by Yanito Freminoshi are a very good place to start at, since they are for free and have No Rights Reserved. You can use them from anywhere in the world at any time and ask for no further permission from anyone at all. Now, the only thing that is left in order for you to complete the perfect picture for you would be to play with a cat. Although cats are not easily imported to Australia due to the different species existing in the continent, it is surely possible for you to have one, and once you do – you get to be a very LUCKY gambler! So start playing and have FUN!
It’s the afternoon and you’ve just gotten off your shift at work. You are breathing a sigh of relief and ready to do something fun that will help you to unwind and just have some fun. First, why not go home and curl up with your cats for a few minutes. They are so cute and having cats in Australia isn’t the most common thing, so you should really give yourself the chance to enjoy them. They are adorable, and with a great glass or wine or a coke, you can really just curl up and enjoy yourself. When you finish with this relaxation, turn on some great music and enjoy a maze. With the maze art from Yanito Freminoshi, for instance, you’ll always have a great time and you’ll really challenge your mind. You can think about the ways that you go about solving the mazes and you can enjoy every minute of the time that you spend on this activity. Next, when you’re done cuddling and you’re done with your maze art, it’s time to let the real fun begin. And the real fun is with Australian online slots. Now, when you search for these games, you can either type in online pokies or online slots in Australia, but many people find that they get better results if they type in slots. Either way you’ll come up with awesome games and great ways to enjoy yourself with online pokies and other games. You’ll see how exciting these games can be and you’ll have an awesome time with them. Then, you might want to sit back for some television time or pick up a good book to read for a few minutes. All of this will bring you great enjoyment as you get ready for another relaxing afternoon after a hard day at work.
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It is very funny to see the different memes of cats online when searching for funny cats. There are cats that mimic exactly what humans do. If a human lifts up his leg, then so does the cat, if a human makes a loud noise then so does the cat, if the human hides behind a pillow then so does a cat. These funny cats are adorable to watch and play with but more than that they also provide an excellent quality that is not often realized. If playing with a cat before solving an online maze or playing online slots, the cat induces the player to be calm. A calm player approaches the game he has chosen to play in the right way and is more likely to achieve better results. All of the games of online slots are based on luck but there are decisions that need to be made when playing online slots that include how much money to place in bets, which paylines or ways to win to place bets on, how many coins to bet per line and when landing one of the bonus features there are often a number of choices to be made. The bonus features include pick and win choices, interactive games and even spinning of special wheels that result in different potential winning payouts. And, a number of the online slots also offer a gamble feature where the player is invited to try and double or quadruple his winnings by guessing the color of a downturned card. If guessing incorrectly the player loses his winnings for that spin, one of those funny cats can be really useful here helping the player to make the right guess and also influencing the player to know when to quit the gambling and continue playing the base game.
Playing online slots games at home has many tremendous advantages. One of the perks of playing slot games at home is that you can try out many of the games for fun before playing for real money. This is gives you the unique opportunity to try out the game and get comfortable with the format and game play such as the number of coins to bet and how the bonus games pay out before beginning to play and win real money. Obviously the greatest advantage of playing online slots is the opportunity to play from the comfort of your own home whenever and however you like. For some people this means playing in the middle of the night when they just can’t fall asleep, other people create all kinds of interesting rituals for themselves such as first completing a maze and then plying in the company of their cat. Playing from home means that you are able to dictate the pace of the game and even choose to play using the auto play feature so that you can literally just sit back and watch the reels roll. Playing online slots from home means that there is no need to get dressed up and spend time and money making your way to a land based casino. You can sped as long as you like playing at the online casino as it is open all hours and there is never any need to wait in line for your favourite slots game. There are many banking options available at the online casino for your convenience and they offer safe and confidential payment options using a variety of different methods such as credit and debit cards as well as the popular e-wallet varieties. Online slots can also be enjoyed from the convenience of a mobile device and the mobile slots games have been specially developed to take advantage of all of the great mobile functions.
5 Leaf Clover Maze SOLUTION
Fun with Online Blackjack in Canada
Some people go stir crazy if they are caught in the house in a snow storm with nothing to do. But many of us see it as a blessing. Why would it possibly be considered a blessing? If you think about it, none of us have enough time to just chill out and do nothing in the course of our day. Even if we have some free time each day, we use that time to jam in as many activities as we can. We might watch a show or read a book for a bit, but we are always conscious of the fact that we should be doing something else and that there is some work or laundry or something to be doing. But when you’re stuck in a snow storm with the arctic vortex telling you that you have no choice but to drown in snow at the chance that you want to go out – you might as well just bask in the fun of being home. So here is a plan. Go and get your ipad and enjoy awesome mobile casino games from your bed while you are curled up with your cat. Brave the storm by not being brave at all – but just cozy. You can sit back and enjoy online blackjack games, roulette games, slots, craps and so much more in Canada. And while the storm is blazing outside and the arctic vortex is making things crazy, you can have a quiet and relaxing time in doors. Even if you wanted to go to the nearest land based casino you wouldn’t be able to get there in the chaos that you have around you now, so there is now reason to try. You can just relax into the possibilities that you have with the casino games and enjoy that you don’t have anywhere to be. This will make your cat really happy because he can curl up on your side with you and relax. Animals are so much better about relaxing than we are, and with your cat by your side you’ll be able to take his example and relax into the evening. And then in the morning, you can get up and be ready for more online casino games. Because there is still nowhere for you to be and no one to go there with. And you can start all over again with your plan for enjoying online blackjack and other online casino games.
Therapy Cats Combine with Online Gambling, Mazes and Other Elements to Create Better Lives for All
Many people are familiar with the inspiring story of Koko, the gorilla who gained fame in the ’80s for her ability to communicate via sign language. When Koko communicated her desire to obtain a kitten, her zookeepers allowed her to select a kitten from a litter and the two became fast friends. Koko exhibited all of the caring aspects of a pet owner, grooming All Ball, feeding her, cuddling her and even sleeping with her. When All Ball dashed into the path of a vehicle and was killed, Koko mourned the loss with tears and genuine grief. The episode of Koko and All Ball inspired children’s books, movies and even further research into the similarities between primates and humans. Two studies, one conducted at Duke University and the second conducted at the University of Rochester, attest to the fact that humans’ brains are hard-wired similarly to apes’ especially when it comes to leisure activities such as gambling, leading to the new phrase “monkey business” to describe gambling activities.
Primate Gambling like human casino behavior
The Duke University study came first. In that study, researchers set out to explore how non-human primates act when they are faced with the opportunity to engage in risky behavior. In the study, monkeys were presented with opportunities to gamble. They were taught that, sometimes, the risks would outweigh the rewards. However, repeatedly, the monkeys chose to engage in the risky gambling behavior, simply because they enjoyed themselves and enjoyed the challenge of the task. A subsequent study at the University of Rochester took the question one step further, by looking at the question of whether the apes could appreciate the concept of “winning streaks” and whether that had any impact on their gambling activities. Over and over, the researchers documented that the monkeys consciously searched for opportunities to gamble on the possibility that they would receive rewards based on previous successes. This is known in gambling circles as the “hot hand” theory. The researchers wanted to transfer the information that they obtained from their monkey research to examine why humans regard random events as connected to some kind of logical progression. As they reviewed the monkeys’ behavior, they determined that humans’ brains are simply biologically hard-wired to engage in that type of behavior.
Monkey Casino Behavior caused by Dopamine:
This is interesting information for casinos and therapists who work with gamblers. It explains why people are drawn to gambling excesses and may, in the long run, help counselors modify excessive gambling behaviors that become destructive to the players. Therapists have become more open to the possibilities that gambling offers to people suffering from loneliness, and by understanding the biological propensities that people have to gamble, they can help people direct their gaming entertainment in healthy ways. Some basic suggestions that therapists have for their clients who want to start gambling include playing at times of the day when the individual is at his most alert, such as in the morning after the first cup of coffee, crossword puzzle and newspaper maze, and while engaging in some type of social behavior – for instance, while snuggling with a cat or other pet. Dopamine is not as well known as Seretonin, it is also one of the feel good chemicals present in the human body. It can increase and decrease depending on how a person feels and also what he is doing. The more stressed a person is the less Seretonin and dopamine can be found in his blood stream. Natural ways to increase these chemicals include petting cats and other domestic animals. Cats are loving creatures that provide constant comfort, warmth and loyalty to all that love them. The cat is also a very clever animal and in some cultures it is thought to be mystical and bring good luck to the owners. Having a cat by ones side is an excellent way to approach life and in particular the iPad Casino that offers an amazing choice of ipad casino games. Whether playing iPad Roulette, iPad Blackjack or one of the other ipad casino games, a cat by the player’s side offers added benefits. The player can pet and stroke the cat as he decides whether to draw another card or which numbers to place bets on. The player can pet and stroke his cat as he decides what value his bets should be. And, during all this time, the cat keeps the player calm and focused and able to get the most out of the games he has chosen to play.
There is nothing like the thrill of watching the roulette wheel spin, slow down, and finally stop right where you want it to stop. And the excitement level is just as strong whether it lands where you want it to or not, because the real excitement peaked moments before it stopped, while you were still in a state of anticipation. And you can experience that thrill with the same intensity whether you are playing in a casino [ smpl8545pk ] in Las Vegas or Monte Carlo or you’re playing in the comfort of your own home after a nice breakfast and a crossword, and holding your beloved pet cat in your lap. And with the online casino, you get the added benefit of online casino bonus codes. But there is really no comparison between the land-based casino experience and the online casino experience. One requires a great deal of time and money. The other lets you play when you feel particularly lucky, wherever you are. All you need is a little bit of free time on your hands and you can play a few games of slots or cards. And you can use an online casino [ smpl8545pk ] bonus, something that does not exist in the world of land-based casinos. Free casino bonus codes make the games more exciting, especially if you are trying them for the first time. Casino bonus codes help make the experience even more personalized. And that’s saying something considering you have complete control of your environment. You can make it as relaxed as you want. And having your cat with you makes it a bonding experience as well. Instead of sharing the ups and downs of the typical casino session with a bunch of strangers you will probably never see again, you get to share the ride with someone you well and truly love, your cat.
Monkey Gambling Research that is less than crystal clear:
For many years scientists have wondered about a seeming hereditary trait among humans to take risks in order to earn rewards. Playing games for rewards has always been a featured part of every society’s entertainment – anthropological and archaeological excavations in every part of the world have found tools, writings and drawings which demonstrate that, over the course of history, people have always played games for money. Using this historical data as a base, behavioral scientists and other mental health professionals have been wondering about the extent to which gambling behavior is in-born, how far back in primate history gambling actually dates and how human gaming behavior relates to gambling activities at sports events, land-based casinos and at the online casino. To examine these questions researchers at Duke University and the University of Rochester designed studies which would allow them to examine how monkeys behave when they are given opportunities to play games for rewards. The Duke study explored how monkeys act when they are faced with the opportunity to engage in risky behavior with the possibility of receiving a reward. The study conclusively demonstrated that monkeys like to gamble, even when they understand that the risks outweigh the rewards. To follow up on the Duke study, researchers at the University of Rochester took a look at “hot hand” behavior in monkeys. The “hot hand” fallacy refers to the belief that a series of wins will result in future successes, even though the outcome of the activity is clearly random. In their research, a group of monkeys was given a series of games to play – two games in which the correct answer repeated and one game in which the correct choice was random. Throughout the activity the monkeys showed that they preferred the games in which the prize was obtained through random sequences. Even when the paradigm of the project changed, so that the random game paid out fewer rewards, it was still clear that the monkeys preferred games in which they had a chance to experience a “lucky streak”. In explaining the monkeys’ preference for such “risky” behavior, lead researcher Tommy Blanchard explained that the monkeys “had lots and lots of opportunities to get over this bias, to learn and change, and yet they continued to show the same tendency.” Blanchard elaborated on his belief that this type of behavior may be tied to our primate ancestors’ search for food and their need to ensure an ample food supply by relying on random searches. [smpl889s]
Cat’s N’ Online Casinos?
Many online casinos offer their players an online casino bonus as an enticement to join the casino. In order to take advantage of the bonus, players must insert the casino bonus codes when they deposit money at the casino. Many of the casinos offer not one but many online casino codes that can be enjoyed when you play online. At most online casinos you will actually need to insert the free casino bonus codes in order to take advantage of the offer. Some casinos will automatically credit the bonus to your account even if you have not inserted the required code. Almost every bonus that the casino offers comes with a wagering requirement. This means that you must put in a certain amount before the bonus can be withdrawn. There is also often a list of excluded games that do not count towards the bonus. Always be sure to read all of the terms and conditions that are attached to the bonus before claiming it. The bonuses at the casino are just another reason that you should sign up at an online casino today and make the most of everything they have to offer. Playing casino games from the kitchen in your slippers and PJ’s accompanied by your pet cat is the perfect way to start the day! Whether you enjoy playing roulette, slots or a particularly challenging game of poker, the online casino has it all covered. So, sign up at an online casino today, collect all of the bonuses that you can and enjoy everything the online casino has to offer. [ibid smpl889s]
Crystal Clear Maze Solution
Recent studies show that primates enjoy gambling and delay satisfaction to achieve desired rewards which lead to new theories about human gambling.
Introduction to Monkey Gambling Facts:
Throughout history people have gambled. The drive to take chances, rely on luck, combine luck and skill and use innocuous objects to test one’s good fortune seems to be an inborn trait. Archaeologists have found ancient cubes of dice that date back over 40,000 years and anthropologists have even found cave drawings of prehistoric man engaged in gaming activities. Keno, the popular lottery game which can be found at many of today’s land-based and online casinos, dates back 2000 years where the ancient Chinese called it “white pigeon.” Ancient Chinese history texts mention card and tile games.
Condemning gambling activities is also an ancient tradition. Greek philosophers spoke out against the “waste” of playing games, both for fun and for money. The Judeo-Christian tradition has also maintained a strong stance against playing games, though some scholars believe that there is mention of Game Theory in the Jewish Talmud, redacted almost two millennium ago. (see footnote 1).
In ancient Rome, gambling was practiced by all classes and, for a period of time, it was popular with the Roman Emperors. In almost every country, anthropological and archaeological evidence demonstrates clearly that gambling activities have always been popular.
Games of Chance
It’s clear that humans have a well-documented tendency to look for opportunities to play games of chance. It seems that a large part of any population (but not all) tends to see winning and losing streaks in situations which are, in fact, random. Researchers have long wished to determine whether this inclination is a disposition that’s picked up in childhood, culturally-based or a predisposition which is ingrained in our cognitive make-up.
Tommy Blanchard, a doctoral candidate in brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester, had a hunch that the answer lies in humans’ cognitive make-up and to prove his theory, he led a team of researchers to examine decision-making in non-human primates in gaming situations. Preliminary results suggest that a tendency to look for (and see) patterns that don’t actually exist is an evolutionary adaptation which humans inherited from their primate forbearers. Researchers theorize that human pre-disposition to wager on situations of random chance may have been a survival technique in prehistoric times that provided our predecessors with a selective advantage in foraging for food in the wild.
Researchers believe that the inborn tendency to feel that we are “on a roll” can help explain why gambling is so alluring, why intelligent people risk their money in gambling activities and why people become addicted to their gambling. The University of Rochester researchers designed their study to determine whether the cognitive bias that humans display for betting may be difficult to override even in situations that they know, intellectually, are random.
Monkey’s Gambling Behavior
Blanchard’s team of researchers included Andreas Wilke, an assistant professor of psychology at Clarkson University and Benjamin Hayden, assistant professor brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester. The investigators set out to determine how and if monkeys will act based on a belief in winning streaks when presented with the opportunity. Their results were published in the July 2014 issue of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition and go a long way towards helping researchers understand how human behavior in live casinos, online casinos and, indeed, in all gambling venues, is a result of inborn traits.
The research was based on the results of a 7-year-old project. In a 2005 article published in Nature Neuroscience, Duke University neurobiologist Michael Platt described a his study (footnote 2) which demonstrated monkeys’ propensity for gambling. The study demonstrated that, when the monkeys have the choice between receiving a steady reward or taking a chance, they will consistently choose to take the risk. This occurs even when they understand that they may lose their reward. According to this study it’s clear that non-human primates do indeed engage in – and enjoy — gambling
In the Duke study, male rhesus macaque monkeys were shown one of two lights on a screen. If they gazed at a “safe” light they received a fruit juice reward. If they gazed at a “risky” light, their juice reward would vary. As the game progressed the monkeys showed their preference for the risky behavior by gazing at the “risky” light more often. These monkeys wanted to gamble.
Even when the parameters of the study were changed, first with the payoff for the risky light being less than for the safe light and then to determine the monkeys’ behavior after a series of losses, the monkeys continued to gamble with their rewards.
When the researchers wired electrodes into the monkeys’ brains they determined that neurons activity increased as the monkeys increased their risky target. Lead researcher Platt noted that “the activity of these neurons paralleled the behavior of the monkeys. They looked like they were signaling, in fact, the monkeys’ subjective valuation of that target.”
Platt summarized the study by saying “It seemed very, very similar to the experience of people who are compulsive gamblers. While it’s always dangerous to anthropomorphize, it seemed as if these monkeys got a high out of getting a big reward that obliterated any memory of all the losses that they would experience following that big reward.”
In the Rochester project the researchers created three different types of play paradigms. In two of the types of play, the correct answer repeated frequently. The third play type involved an invitation to make a choice in which the correct answer was random.
As the monkeys played, they quickly guessed the correct sequences where clear patterns existed but, in the random play type, the monkeys continued to make their choices in a way that suggested that they expected to experience a “lucky streak.” Even when their rewards were random, the monkeys continued to favor the “risky” side.
The monkeys demonstrated what is known, in gaming circles, as a “hot-hand bias” This phenomena, also known as a hot-hand fallacy” or a “hot hand phenomenon” had only been related to humans up until this point but the Rochester study showed that monkeys also seem to believe that, when someone experiences success with a random event, they will have a better chance of further success in subsequent attempts at the same activity.
In the Rochester study the monkeys showed the hot-handed bias consistently in the course of 1,200 trials that took place over several weeks. Blanchard noted that the monkeys “had lots and lots of opportunities to get over this bias, to learn and change, and yet they continued to show the same tendency.”
Serotonin and Dopamine
An alternative scenario has been suggested in a recent study undertaken by the United States National Institute of Health. In their look at gambling behavior, entitled, Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses (see footnote 3) researchers examined the role that neurochemicals play in brain activity during gaming events.
The study was undertaken by a representative of the University of Aarhus in Denmark along with a group of UK researchers from several British universities. The study examined “loss-chasing” — continued gambling to recover losses – which plays a part in obsessive gambling patterns. The scientists set out to investigate the role that neuromodulators play in influencing loss-chasing and discovered that the serotonin activity in the brain plays a large part in this behavior.
In the first experiment, subjects consumed amino-acid drinks that either had or did not have the serotonin precursor tryptophan. In the second experiment, participants received pramipexole, agonist or a placebo drink. In the third experiment participants drank a drink that included the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol, or a placebo.
After their drinks the participants were invited to compete at a computerized loss-chasing game. The researchers measured the participants’ moods and heart rates. The participants’ decisions to make or chase their game loses were correlated to the amino-acid drinks that they had consumed before they started playing. Some supplements caused the players to diminish the value of the losses which they surrendered and increase the value of the losses that they chased. Others produced no significant changes in loss-chasing behavior.
The researchers concluded that loss chasing can become an aversively motivated escape behavior which is controlled, in part, by the marginal value of accumulated losses relative to the value of continued gambling.
Based on this research, the authors of the study suggest that neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine play significant roles in the propensity of individuals to gamble. Serotonin and dopamine seem to be released into the synapse of the brain during gambling activities which heightens pleasure and provides an enhanced live casino or online casino experience. This is true regardless of whether the individual is playing table games, card games, lotteries or online pokies.
As a gamer plays he seems to be identifying patterns, whether real or imagined, that provide him with a rush of serotonin and dopamine for a heightened gambling experience, resulting in his interest in continuing to play based on his perceived luck.
The findings of the Rochester study create a more intriguing question. Why do both monkeys and humans believe that they should count on a run of luck, even when they’re faced with overwhelming evidence that the results are, in fact, random? The authors of the study speculate that it may be because of primates’ inborn need to ensure a food supply. The distribution of food in the wild isn’t random so primates may be hard-wired to proceed according to the chances for obtaining the most satisfying food supply. Hayden expands on this theory: “If you find a nice juicy beetle on the underside of a log, this is pretty good evidence that there might be a beetle in a similar location nearby, because beetles, like most food sources, tend to live near each other.”
Hayden further elaborated on humans’ search for patterns, based on evolution. “We have this incredible drive to see patterns in the world, and we also have this incredible drive to learn. I think it’s very related to why we like music, and why we like to do crossword puzzles, Sudoku, and things like that. If there’s a pattern there, we’re on top of it. And if there may or may not be a pattern there, that’s even more interesting.”
University of Rochester News Center: Monkeys Also Believe in Winning Streaks, Study Shows http://www.rochester.edu/newscenter/monkeys-also-believe-in-winning-streaks-study-shows/
Live Science: Gambling Monkeys: Compelled by Winners High http://www.livescience.com/398-gambling-monkeys-compelled-winner-high.html
Footnote 1: Game Theory in the Talmud, York University, Department of Economics http://dept.econ.yorku.ca/~jros/docs/AumannGame.pdf
Footnote 2 Risky Monkey Business Could Help Humans Duke Magazine http://dukemagazine.duke.edu/article/risky-monkey-business-could-help-humans
Footnote 3:Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses Neruopsychopharmocology Reviews http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v36/n2/full/npp2010170a.html
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