Puzzle buffs now have a new puzzle option in the form of Yanito Freminoshi mazes. Freminoshi maze art combines art with interactive maze for the chance to solve challenging mazes which are embedded in a work of art. The Freminoshi maze art is viewed by critics and collectors alike as a new genre of graphic art. Examples of these pieces can be found in galleries, private collections and museums. Freminoshi sees his mazes as activities that allow individuals to enjoy a high quality maze activity. The Freminoshi mazes are free and can be downloaded from the Internet or found in puzzle books with no rights reserved, meaning that you can try to solve the maze or just hang it as a piece of op art.
About The Artist: Yanito Freminoshi
Yanito Freminoshi is an artist who specializes in mazes, his work so special and intriguing that it can’t be overlooked. Freminoshi’s mazes are displayed at museums and art galleries all around the world, where they are considered as a serious work of art. These mazes are also available to access for free on the web, as they are a part of the Free Mazes Project where all mazes have no rights reserved over them, and anyone can use the mazes for all possible causes.
Land-based casinos were introduced to Canada in the ’70s. Casino gambling quickly gained popularity and new casinos continue to be built until today. Although travel time is often significant, players enjoy travelling to casino locations in Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario and other provinces where they can play blackjack, poker, roulette, baccarat, craps and slot machines. There is an addition option for Canadian players today — the mobile casino. Competitors can play whenever they want, from wherever they want and as long as they want at their leisure on mobile. The two types of casinos are sometimes compared and contrasted as gamblers decide when and where they would prefer to play.
Land-based casinos are generally located in large population centers. Gamers who live in rural areas, or who don’t have the funds to travel to a brick and mortar casino and pay accommodations costs, find it difficult to participate in this type of gambling venue.
More promotions are available to Canadians who play at the mobile casino than for brick-and-mortar gamblers. The online games in Canada include Welcome Week match bonus credits for new players, Loyalty Points for veteran gamers and many additional draws, bonus credits, promotions and other casino give-aways..
Individuals who are accustomed to working on a maze or two before they begin their casino activities find that they have less access to this activity when they gamble at a brick and mortar casino. There are mazes in the morning paper or in maze books but mobile players can easily locate a maze on their mobile screen when they play on their smartphone or tablet browser. In addition to being a relaxing activity, mazes provide the kind of gaming skills, including better eye-hand coordination and heightened concentration skills, that allow them to be more successful while gambling.
Pet-owners may find it difficult to leave a pet behind when they go to a brick-and-mortar casino. Dogs adapt easily to hotel rooms and travel but cats become agitated when they are removed from a familiar environment. When you play at a mobile casino you simply allow your cat to cuddle with you while you play on your mobile device.
- Banking at the mobile casino is easy and efficient via the casino- supported ebanking institutions. The Canadian mobile casino interfaces with multiple digital banks including ewallets, evoucher cards, echecking accounts, credit and debit cards and ebanks that facilitate deposits and withdrawals through direct and wire transfers.
Slots Machine Maze Solution
What sorts of games do you like to play? Do you enjoy playing with your cat?
At the deepest part of ourselves, we are mostly children. Nice kids who enjoy playing all different sorts of games and want to feel happy and free. You can decide to play one game for one day, and then a totally different game on the other day. You can start participating in a group game, or play solo, and no matter if you play on your own or with one of your best friends, you mostly want to enjoy yourself and to have some fun. Games are awesome and they have been out there for very long time. For decades and centuries if not for eras, and it is very probable that even during the stone age people found themselves enjoying all sorts of games. No matter if you are an adult, adolescent or a child, the happiness attributed to playing is never over and we better understand it and let ourselves have a lot of fun, while giving ourselves the option to play what really makes us excited! So, what makes you feel the thrill? What makes your friends really excited? What kind of games other people all over the world really prefer for the past few years, and what you like to try out if you were looking for something new? Most probably, if you want to listen to what most gamers have to say, then the pokies games would be the right thing for you. Pokies games are wonderful since they easily combine all sorts of things gamers really enjoy doing and having. The unexpected results of the different spins, as well as the little sense of control attributed to the gaming features will quickly let you feel you are the one to master the game and be as surprised as relaxed since everything is in your hands now. If you really want to find all of the most relevant pokies games, then you would like to consider looking for other terms as you surf the web. “Online slots in Australia” and “Australian online slots” surely do work much better than the “pokies” do, and they easily tend to bring back a lot of relevant results. That is why gamblers refer to pokies but actually write slots when they chat online. In addition to that, another kind of game or small challenge you most probably want to add to your life is solving a maze or two before, after or during the act of solving mazes. The mazes created by Yanito Freminoshi are a very good place to start at, since they are for free and have No Rights Reserved. You can use them from anywhere in the world at any time and ask for no further permission from anyone at all. Now, the only thing that is left in order for you to complete the perfect picture for you would be to play with a cat. Although cats are not easily imported to Australia due to the different species existing in the continent, it is surely possible for you to have one, and once you do – you get to be a very LUCKY gambler! So start playing and have FUN!
It’s the afternoon and you’ve just gotten off your shift at work. You are breathing a sigh of relief and ready to do something fun that will help you to unwind and just have some fun. First, why not go home and curl up with your cats for a few minutes. They are so cute and having cats in Australia isn’t the most common thing, so you should really give yourself the chance to enjoy them. They are adorable, and with a great glass or wine or a coke, you can really just curl up and enjoy yourself. When you finish with this relaxation, turn on some great music and enjoy a maze. With the maze art from Yanito Freminoshi, for instance, you’ll always have a great time and you’ll really challenge your mind. You can think about the ways that you go about solving the mazes and you can enjoy every minute of the time that you spend on this activity. Next, when you’re done cuddling and you’re done with your maze art, it’s time to let the real fun begin. And the real fun is with Australian online slots. Now, when you search for these games, you can either type in online pokies or online slots in Australia, but many people find that they get better results if they type in slots. Either way you’ll come up with awesome games and great ways to enjoy yourself with online pokies and other games. You’ll see how exciting these games can be and you’ll have an awesome time with them. Then, you might want to sit back for some television time or pick up a good book to read for a few minutes. All of this will bring you great enjoyment as you get ready for another relaxing afternoon after a hard day at work.
Lucky Mazes book cover maze SOLVED
If you’re the type of person who sees nothing wrong with dropping a few thousand dollars on a bet on the slots or blackjack, you might eventually qualify for an invitation to the VIP Casino at All Slots Casino, the room that’s reserved for the real high rollers and big spenders. The room is limited to those who have proven their loyalty and their bankroll. And once you arrive, you get treated accordingly, with services reserved especially for you personally and with offers that go exclusively to the VIPs. It’s not easy to qualify for the top, and those who do reap all the benefits that go with it.
The online casino has a large variety of different online slots machines that can be played from the players own home. Players who are new to the casino should try out the more basic slots games before making their way to the feature filled slots. In addition, a great perk of playing at the online casino is the option of playing many games for fun before playing for real money. This is also a great way to become more familiar with the games. The most basic online slots are the three reel fruit machines. The reels hold between 10 to 20 symbols and there is usually just one winning payline. There are thousands of different variations to choose from. Five reel slots have more paylines than the classic three reel slots and there are therefore more opportunities to win. The five reels can have anywhere from 10 and up to 100 winning paylines and they usually contain bonus rounds and special features such as wilds, scatters and free spins. Many players enjoy video slots as these are packed with plenty of bonus action and features. What makes the video slots so unique is their many additional bonus games. Many online casinos offer slots games with a progressive jackpot. A progressive jackpot is linked to a larger network. A percentage of every wager that the players bet on the game will go into a larger pool. The prize pool in a progressive game can grow tremendously until one lucky player wins the jackpot. It is no surprise that the slots games are the most popular game at the online casino. The games are easy to play, come in hundreds of exciting variations, offer attractive jackpots and many of the games come with additional bonus features.
Lucky Even Numbers Maze Solved
Cat for edge in Casino War
Cats are great company. They cannot talk to their owners and carer’s but there is a certain amount of communication that they manage and the more time that a person spends with his cat the more he understands the cat and its needs. The cat needs nurturing and looking after but in return offers the owner many incredible qualities that can be used by the owner. Constantly petting a cat calms an owner and in fact is a great way to lower blood pressure. Many different surveys and reports have been conducted and written that show how blood pressure of cat owners and other domestic pets has been lowered by looking after the pet. The cats are also known to increase the feel good hormone in the body. This is a great asset to have and one that can be used when playing online casino games like casino war. Casino war is a fast paced online casino game that does not require a lot of input from the player apart from the decision on how much to bet. As a result the game is very fast pace and the player needs to be well focused before embarking on a real money game. The higher the feel good hormone levels in the body the better the person feels about himself and the better he will perform in the game of casino war. There are no guarantees in this game and even if the player loses, the feel good hormones that have increased due to the pet cat come into action and the player can appreciate the game of casino war for what it is, a game and not a money competition. Having the right attitude when playing casino war online and other online casino game is very important because there are always losses together with the winnings. Being able to deal with the losses and the winnings in the same way benefits the player and helps him to achieve the most satisfaction from the game. Even playing casino war for fun can be stressful and the presence of a cat close by or on the players lap helps the game run more smoothly and the player to get the most out of the game. So apart from being great company, the cats are also very beneficial domestic pets to look after.
Cats of Casino War
Cats are loving and warm creatures that like to be nurtured and looked after. In return for being looked after a cat offers comfort, many health benefits and even personal benefits to their owners. It has been noted in a number of surveys and research projects that owners of cats benefit from better health than the non-owners. The cat owner’s blood pressure is lower and they also have higher serotonin levels. Serotonin is the feel good hormone present in every person and the more serotonin present the better a person feels about himself and the better he can perform in all walks of life. One of the well-known areas that cats can make a different is to be present when playing online casino games and especially games such as casino war. The casino war game is a relatively easy game to understand and play. It can be tried out for fun at many of the casino war online places giving the player a chance to get to know the game and once he is ready to play real money casino war, in just a few moments he can switch to the real money version. While the player is enjoying an online game of casino war he can also keep his cat close by helping him to stay calm and focused on the game. And with the increased serotonin levels that the player has from petting his cat he also feels much better about himself and is therefore able to enjoy and perform better in his game of casino war. He can make decisions with a clear head and knowing that he is sure about the game he is playing and the decisions he is making. Whether choosing to surrender at a tie or go to war, the player is confident in the choices he makes thanks to the presence of the cat and the warmth and love that it oozes. The game of casino war online becomes a much more attractive prospect once the player has his cat close by. The cat gives him security and a certain status that in turns adds to his confidence and a confident player achieves better results and without a doubt better satisfaction from his games. Even players that do not own cats should consider borrowing their neighbour’s cat or a friend’s cat for the duration of their game of casino war online.
Afro Maze SOLVED
The Development of Gambling Throughout the Years, and the Relation to Mazes and Cats in Recent Times
Gambling has always been intriguing for the human kind. The game against luck, the ability to win while using the God’s blessing or the fight against someone just as smart as you are and just as experienced as you are and yet, never being able to tell who will win, eventually. The quest for challenge, interest and passion has made the gambling industry a pure joy, even before the word industry was invented. Gamers favoured the gambling experience back at the Stone Age and the Middle Age, developing more and more methods to entertain one another and oneself. Back in recent centuries, the human being were willing to invest a lot in order to be benefited with another great game and gave up willingly a lot of time and resources simply in order to approach a site that supplies a good gambling experience. Others, who were less willing to let go of their precious time, found more creative ways to keep themselves close to games and created gambling sites in their hometowns and sometimes their private places. One way or another, gambling was never out of the picture for those who truly desired it. Recently, the world has developed and supplied better and more convenient ways for gamers to keep on enjoying wonderful games such as pokies and created the online casino and mobile casino which supply today the need of all these gamblers who just want some more. Online pokies gamers as well as mobile casino favours find their way to improve the consistently improving wonderful experience and apply additional activities to the gaming experience. Some find ease in solving a maze before or after a fine game and some simply chose to pet a cat while gambling. No matter what they chose to do, they are mostly content the pokies are more reachable than they were ever before.
The Achiever in Every Person, the Online pokies and the Mazes and Cats
Human beings are constant achievers. Since the ancient time of the Stone Age, the alpha male desired to conquer all others, to achieve the woman and to win the battle. The human race has put focus on winning other species even in the price of total extermination of these species and created fights between groups mostly in order to be the powerful one. The desire to achieve, to win, to improve is inherent in the human kinds and is not merely a part of the physical need of the person. The desire to achieve is also mentally, psychologically; the human beings obtain a constant desire to achieve more knowledge, internal power, success. Such achieves are obtained by deep consideration and thinking process, and by high understanding of oneself and of others. The desire to achieve is in all of us and wears many different shapes. Some people find their best route to achieve by playing online pokies. By doing so they achieve multiple things: they win many spins, they gain free spins and bonuses and they achieve internal feelings of exhilaration, joy and fun. They achieve sensations they do not achieve in other fields in their lives and they enjoy winning the games themselves. Desiring to grow this feelings of achieving, some online pokies gamblers decide to turn to the maze, or better to say mazes, field. The online casino and mobile casino gamers find highly achieving feelings by solving a lot of mazes before and after the online pokies games. During the games themselves, however, they enjoy petting their cats and getting into more of a relaxed mood. The act of solving mazes, apparently, tends to increase the feeling of mental achievement by winning another “spin”, thus feeling more prepared to embark on another game.
Tips to Get Up with Mazes and Cats
It’s always hard to get up in the morning. Everyone probably has a hard time with it. But there are ways to make it more enjoyable and more doable for most people. Here are a few ideas. First, people can let their alarm sound only once so that you don’t keep hitting the snooze button and driving yourself crazy. Next, you can have a maze waiting for you so that you know that when you get up, you’ll have something fun that you can do immediately to keep yourself busy and to get you up. When you finish with the maze, you can cuddle with your cute cat for a few minutes and then enjoy mobile casino games and other awesome casino game choices. You can grab your tablet, fluff the pillows, cuddle with the cat and get to work enjoying casino games. These games are a great way to get going in the morning and to rev up your engine for the day ahead. This is a great choice for anyone who has a hard time getting up in the morning. And these are a few ways that anyone can start to wake up in a better mood in the morning and to have something to look forward to as they get in for the day ahead.
Distracted Kitty Maze Solution
Fun with Online Blackjack in Canada
Some people go stir crazy if they are caught in the house in a snow storm with nothing to do. But many of us see it as a blessing. Why would it possibly be considered a blessing? If you think about it, none of us have enough time to just chill out and do nothing in the course of our day. Even if we have some free time each day, we use that time to jam in as many activities as we can. We might watch a show or read a book for a bit, but we are always conscious of the fact that we should be doing something else and that there is some work or laundry or something to be doing. But when you’re stuck in a snow storm with the arctic vortex telling you that you have no choice but to drown in snow at the chance that you want to go out – you might as well just bask in the fun of being home. So here is a plan. Go and get your ipad and enjoy awesome mobile casino games from your bed while you are curled up with your cat. Brave the storm by not being brave at all – but just cozy. You can sit back and enjoy online blackjack games, roulette games, slots, craps and so much more in Canada. And while the storm is blazing outside and the arctic vortex is making things crazy, you can have a quiet and relaxing time in doors. Even if you wanted to go to the nearest land based casino you wouldn’t be able to get there in the chaos that you have around you now, so there is now reason to try. You can just relax into the possibilities that you have with the casino games and enjoy that you don’t have anywhere to be. This will make your cat really happy because he can curl up on your side with you and relax. Animals are so much better about relaxing than we are, and with your cat by your side you’ll be able to take his example and relax into the evening. And then in the morning, you can get up and be ready for more online casino games. Because there is still nowhere for you to be and no one to go there with. And you can start all over again with your plan for enjoying online blackjack and other online casino games.
Therapy Cats Combine with Online Gambling, Mazes and Other Elements to Create Better Lives for All
Many people are familiar with the inspiring story of Koko, the gorilla who gained fame in the ’80s for her ability to communicate via sign language. When Koko communicated her desire to obtain a kitten, her zookeepers allowed her to select a kitten from a litter and the two became fast friends. Koko exhibited all of the caring aspects of a pet owner, grooming All Ball, feeding her, cuddling her and even sleeping with her. When All Ball dashed into the path of a vehicle and was killed, Koko mourned the loss with tears and genuine grief. The episode of Koko and All Ball inspired children’s books, movies and even further research into the similarities between primates and humans. Two studies, one conducted at Duke University and the second conducted at the University of Rochester, attest to the fact that humans’ brains are hard-wired similarly to apes’ especially when it comes to leisure activities such as gambling, leading to the new phrase “monkey business” to describe gambling activities.
Primate Gambling like human casino behavior
The Duke University study came first. In that study, researchers set out to explore how non-human primates act when they are faced with the opportunity to engage in risky behavior. In the study, monkeys were presented with opportunities to gamble. They were taught that, sometimes, the risks would outweigh the rewards. However, repeatedly, the monkeys chose to engage in the risky gambling behavior, simply because they enjoyed themselves and enjoyed the challenge of the task. A subsequent study at the University of Rochester took the question one step further, by looking at the question of whether the apes could appreciate the concept of “winning streaks” and whether that had any impact on their gambling activities. Over and over, the researchers documented that the monkeys consciously searched for opportunities to gamble on the possibility that they would receive rewards based on previous successes. This is known in gambling circles as the “hot hand” theory. The researchers wanted to transfer the information that they obtained from their monkey research to examine why humans regard random events as connected to some kind of logical progression. As they reviewed the monkeys’ behavior, they determined that humans’ brains are simply biologically hard-wired to engage in that type of behavior.
Monkey Casino Behavior caused by Dopamine:
This is interesting information for casinos and therapists who work with gamblers. It explains why people are drawn to gambling excesses and may, in the long run, help counselors modify excessive gambling behaviors that become destructive to the players. Therapists have become more open to the possibilities that gambling offers to people suffering from loneliness, and by understanding the biological propensities that people have to gamble, they can help people direct their gaming entertainment in healthy ways. Some basic suggestions that therapists have for their clients who want to start gambling include playing at times of the day when the individual is at his most alert, such as in the morning after the first cup of coffee, crossword puzzle and newspaper maze, and while engaging in some type of social behavior – for instance, while snuggling with a cat or other pet. Dopamine is not as well known as Seretonin, it is also one of the feel good chemicals present in the human body. It can increase and decrease depending on how a person feels and also what he is doing. The more stressed a person is the less Seretonin and dopamine can be found in his blood stream. Natural ways to increase these chemicals include petting cats and other domestic animals. Cats are loving creatures that provide constant comfort, warmth and loyalty to all that love them. The cat is also a very clever animal and in some cultures it is thought to be mystical and bring good luck to the owners. Having a cat by ones side is an excellent way to approach life and in particular the iPad Casino that offers an amazing choice of ipad casino games. Whether playing iPad Roulette, iPad Blackjack or one of the other ipad casino games, a cat by the player’s side offers added benefits. The player can pet and stroke the cat as he decides whether to draw another card or which numbers to place bets on. The player can pet and stroke his cat as he decides what value his bets should be. And, during all this time, the cat keeps the player calm and focused and able to get the most out of the games he has chosen to play.
There is nothing like the thrill of watching the roulette wheel spin, slow down, and finally stop right where you want it to stop. And the excitement level is just as strong whether it lands where you want it to or not, because the real excitement peaked moments before it stopped, while you were still in a state of anticipation. And you can experience that thrill with the same intensity whether you are playing in a casino [ smpl8545pk ] in Las Vegas or Monte Carlo or you’re playing in the comfort of your own home after a nice breakfast and a crossword, and holding your beloved pet cat in your lap. And with the online casino, you get the added benefit of online casino bonus codes. But there is really no comparison between the land-based casino experience and the online casino experience. One requires a great deal of time and money. The other lets you play when you feel particularly lucky, wherever you are. All you need is a little bit of free time on your hands and you can play a few games of slots or cards. And you can use an online casino [ smpl8545pk ] bonus, something that does not exist in the world of land-based casinos. Free casino bonus codes make the games more exciting, especially if you are trying them for the first time. Casino bonus codes help make the experience even more personalized. And that’s saying something considering you have complete control of your environment. You can make it as relaxed as you want. And having your cat with you makes it a bonding experience as well. Instead of sharing the ups and downs of the typical casino session with a bunch of strangers you will probably never see again, you get to share the ride with someone you well and truly love, your cat.
Monkey Gambling Research that is less than crystal clear:
For many years scientists have wondered about a seeming hereditary trait among humans to take risks in order to earn rewards. Playing games for rewards has always been a featured part of every society’s entertainment – anthropological and archaeological excavations in every part of the world have found tools, writings and drawings which demonstrate that, over the course of history, people have always played games for money. Using this historical data as a base, behavioral scientists and other mental health professionals have been wondering about the extent to which gambling behavior is in-born, how far back in primate history gambling actually dates and how human gaming behavior relates to gambling activities at sports events, land-based casinos and at the online casino. To examine these questions researchers at Duke University and the University of Rochester designed studies which would allow them to examine how monkeys behave when they are given opportunities to play games for rewards. The Duke study explored how monkeys act when they are faced with the opportunity to engage in risky behavior with the possibility of receiving a reward. The study conclusively demonstrated that monkeys like to gamble, even when they understand that the risks outweigh the rewards. To follow up on the Duke study, researchers at the University of Rochester took a look at “hot hand” behavior in monkeys. The “hot hand” fallacy refers to the belief that a series of wins will result in future successes, even though the outcome of the activity is clearly random. In their research, a group of monkeys was given a series of games to play – two games in which the correct answer repeated and one game in which the correct choice was random. Throughout the activity the monkeys showed that they preferred the games in which the prize was obtained through random sequences. Even when the paradigm of the project changed, so that the random game paid out fewer rewards, it was still clear that the monkeys preferred games in which they had a chance to experience a “lucky streak”. In explaining the monkeys’ preference for such “risky” behavior, lead researcher Tommy Blanchard explained that the monkeys “had lots and lots of opportunities to get over this bias, to learn and change, and yet they continued to show the same tendency.” Blanchard elaborated on his belief that this type of behavior may be tied to our primate ancestors’ search for food and their need to ensure an ample food supply by relying on random searches. [smpl889s]
Cat’s N’ Online Casinos?
Many online casinos offer their players an online casino bonus as an enticement to join the casino. In order to take advantage of the bonus, players must insert the casino bonus codes when they deposit money at the casino. Many of the casinos offer not one but many online casino codes that can be enjoyed when you play online. At most online casinos you will actually need to insert the free casino bonus codes in order to take advantage of the offer. Some casinos will automatically credit the bonus to your account even if you have not inserted the required code. Almost every bonus that the casino offers comes with a wagering requirement. This means that you must put in a certain amount before the bonus can be withdrawn. There is also often a list of excluded games that do not count towards the bonus. Always be sure to read all of the terms and conditions that are attached to the bonus before claiming it. The bonuses at the casino are just another reason that you should sign up at an online casino today and make the most of everything they have to offer. Playing casino games from the kitchen in your slippers and PJ’s accompanied by your pet cat is the perfect way to start the day! Whether you enjoy playing roulette, slots or a particularly challenging game of poker, the online casino has it all covered. So, sign up at an online casino today, collect all of the bonuses that you can and enjoy everything the online casino has to offer. [ibid smpl889s]
Crystal Clear Maze Solution
Recent studies show that primates enjoy gambling and delay satisfaction to achieve desired rewards which lead to new theories about human gambling.
Introduction to Monkey Gambling Facts:
Throughout history people have gambled. The drive to take chances, rely on luck, combine luck and skill and use innocuous objects to test one’s good fortune seems to be an inborn trait. Archaeologists have found ancient cubes of dice that date back over 40,000 years and anthropologists have even found cave drawings of prehistoric man engaged in gaming activities. Keno, the popular lottery game which can be found at many of today’s land-based and online casinos, dates back 2000 years where the ancient Chinese called it “white pigeon.” Ancient Chinese history texts mention card and tile games.
Condemning gambling activities is also an ancient tradition. Greek philosophers spoke out against the “waste” of playing games, both for fun and for money. The Judeo-Christian tradition has also maintained a strong stance against playing games, though some scholars believe that there is mention of Game Theory in the Jewish Talmud, redacted almost two millennium ago. (see footnote 1).
In ancient Rome, gambling was practiced by all classes and, for a period of time, it was popular with the Roman Emperors. In almost every country, anthropological and archaeological evidence demonstrates clearly that gambling activities have always been popular.
Games of Chance
It’s clear that humans have a well-documented tendency to look for opportunities to play games of chance. It seems that a large part of any population (but not all) tends to see winning and losing streaks in situations which are, in fact, random. Researchers have long wished to determine whether this inclination is a disposition that’s picked up in childhood, culturally-based or a predisposition which is ingrained in our cognitive make-up.
Tommy Blanchard, a doctoral candidate in brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester, had a hunch that the answer lies in humans’ cognitive make-up and to prove his theory, he led a team of researchers to examine decision-making in non-human primates in gaming situations. Preliminary results suggest that a tendency to look for (and see) patterns that don’t actually exist is an evolutionary adaptation which humans inherited from their primate forbearers. Researchers theorize that human pre-disposition to wager on situations of random chance may have been a survival technique in prehistoric times that provided our predecessors with a selective advantage in foraging for food in the wild.
Researchers believe that the inborn tendency to feel that we are “on a roll” can help explain why gambling is so alluring, why intelligent people risk their money in gambling activities and why people become addicted to their gambling. The University of Rochester researchers designed their study to determine whether the cognitive bias that humans display for betting may be difficult to override even in situations that they know, intellectually, are random.
Monkey’s Gambling Behavior
Blanchard’s team of researchers included Andreas Wilke, an assistant professor of psychology at Clarkson University and Benjamin Hayden, assistant professor brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester. The investigators set out to determine how and if monkeys will act based on a belief in winning streaks when presented with the opportunity. Their results were published in the July 2014 issue of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition and go a long way towards helping researchers understand how human behavior in live casinos, online casinos and, indeed, in all gambling venues, is a result of inborn traits.
The research was based on the results of a 7-year-old project. In a 2005 article published in Nature Neuroscience, Duke University neurobiologist Michael Platt described a his study (footnote 2) which demonstrated monkeys’ propensity for gambling. The study demonstrated that, when the monkeys have the choice between receiving a steady reward or taking a chance, they will consistently choose to take the risk. This occurs even when they understand that they may lose their reward. According to this study it’s clear that non-human primates do indeed engage in – and enjoy — gambling
In the Duke study, male rhesus macaque monkeys were shown one of two lights on a screen. If they gazed at a “safe” light they received a fruit juice reward. If they gazed at a “risky” light, their juice reward would vary. As the game progressed the monkeys showed their preference for the risky behavior by gazing at the “risky” light more often. These monkeys wanted to gamble.
Even when the parameters of the study were changed, first with the payoff for the risky light being less than for the safe light and then to determine the monkeys’ behavior after a series of losses, the monkeys continued to gamble with their rewards.
When the researchers wired electrodes into the monkeys’ brains they determined that neurons activity increased as the monkeys increased their risky target. Lead researcher Platt noted that “the activity of these neurons paralleled the behavior of the monkeys. They looked like they were signaling, in fact, the monkeys’ subjective valuation of that target.”
Platt summarized the study by saying “It seemed very, very similar to the experience of people who are compulsive gamblers. While it’s always dangerous to anthropomorphize, it seemed as if these monkeys got a high out of getting a big reward that obliterated any memory of all the losses that they would experience following that big reward.”
In the Rochester project the researchers created three different types of play paradigms. In two of the types of play, the correct answer repeated frequently. The third play type involved an invitation to make a choice in which the correct answer was random.
As the monkeys played, they quickly guessed the correct sequences where clear patterns existed but, in the random play type, the monkeys continued to make their choices in a way that suggested that they expected to experience a “lucky streak.” Even when their rewards were random, the monkeys continued to favor the “risky” side.
The monkeys demonstrated what is known, in gaming circles, as a “hot-hand bias” This phenomena, also known as a hot-hand fallacy” or a “hot hand phenomenon” had only been related to humans up until this point but the Rochester study showed that monkeys also seem to believe that, when someone experiences success with a random event, they will have a better chance of further success in subsequent attempts at the same activity.
In the Rochester study the monkeys showed the hot-handed bias consistently in the course of 1,200 trials that took place over several weeks. Blanchard noted that the monkeys “had lots and lots of opportunities to get over this bias, to learn and change, and yet they continued to show the same tendency.”
Serotonin and Dopamine
An alternative scenario has been suggested in a recent study undertaken by the United States National Institute of Health. In their look at gambling behavior, entitled, Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses (see footnote 3) researchers examined the role that neurochemicals play in brain activity during gaming events.
The study was undertaken by a representative of the University of Aarhus in Denmark along with a group of UK researchers from several British universities. The study examined “loss-chasing” — continued gambling to recover losses – which plays a part in obsessive gambling patterns. The scientists set out to investigate the role that neuromodulators play in influencing loss-chasing and discovered that the serotonin activity in the brain plays a large part in this behavior.
In the first experiment, subjects consumed amino-acid drinks that either had or did not have the serotonin precursor tryptophan. In the second experiment, participants received pramipexole, agonist or a placebo drink. In the third experiment participants drank a drink that included the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol, or a placebo.
After their drinks the participants were invited to compete at a computerized loss-chasing game. The researchers measured the participants’ moods and heart rates. The participants’ decisions to make or chase their game loses were correlated to the amino-acid drinks that they had consumed before they started playing. Some supplements caused the players to diminish the value of the losses which they surrendered and increase the value of the losses that they chased. Others produced no significant changes in loss-chasing behavior.
The researchers concluded that loss chasing can become an aversively motivated escape behavior which is controlled, in part, by the marginal value of accumulated losses relative to the value of continued gambling.
Based on this research, the authors of the study suggest that neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine play significant roles in the propensity of individuals to gamble. Serotonin and dopamine seem to be released into the synapse of the brain during gambling activities which heightens pleasure and provides an enhanced live casino or online casino experience. This is true regardless of whether the individual is playing table games, card games, lotteries or online pokies.
As a gamer plays he seems to be identifying patterns, whether real or imagined, that provide him with a rush of serotonin and dopamine for a heightened gambling experience, resulting in his interest in continuing to play based on his perceived luck.
The findings of the Rochester study create a more intriguing question. Why do both monkeys and humans believe that they should count on a run of luck, even when they’re faced with overwhelming evidence that the results are, in fact, random? The authors of the study speculate that it may be because of primates’ inborn need to ensure a food supply. The distribution of food in the wild isn’t random so primates may be hard-wired to proceed according to the chances for obtaining the most satisfying food supply. Hayden expands on this theory: “If you find a nice juicy beetle on the underside of a log, this is pretty good evidence that there might be a beetle in a similar location nearby, because beetles, like most food sources, tend to live near each other.”
Hayden further elaborated on humans’ search for patterns, based on evolution. “We have this incredible drive to see patterns in the world, and we also have this incredible drive to learn. I think it’s very related to why we like music, and why we like to do crossword puzzles, Sudoku, and things like that. If there’s a pattern there, we’re on top of it. And if there may or may not be a pattern there, that’s even more interesting.”
University of Rochester News Center: Monkeys Also Believe in Winning Streaks, Study Shows http://www.rochester.edu/newscenter/monkeys-also-believe-in-winning-streaks-study-shows/
Live Science: Gambling Monkeys: Compelled by Winners High http://www.livescience.com/398-gambling-monkeys-compelled-winner-high.html
Footnote 1: Game Theory in the Talmud, York University, Department of Economics http://dept.econ.yorku.ca/~jros/docs/AumannGame.pdf
Footnote 2 Risky Monkey Business Could Help Humans Duke Magazine http://dukemagazine.duke.edu/article/risky-monkey-business-could-help-humans
Footnote 3:Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses Neruopsychopharmocology Reviews http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v36/n2/full/npp2010170a.html