We are creatures of habit. That means that following daily routines is the best way for us to maximize our productivity. However, good habits are not easy to begin, especially if they should happen before 11 AM. Creating a regular morning routine is an excellent way to ensure that your day starts off right, and you can maximize your full potential for the day. Some people like to complete crossword puzzles or read a newspaper, but many adults are now turning to a slightly less conventional morning activity – coloring for grown ups! Working on an adult coloring book as you drink your morning coffee is a great way to prepare your brain for the day ahead with a passive, but hugely enjoyable activity. Even if you only work on your coloring for a few minutes every morning, you will be pleased when you see that you’ve created a beautiful work of art. Another beneficial morning activity you could incorporate into your daily routine is playing a few exciting games at an online casino. Many people do not realize it, but you can actually win real money when you play online. Making an account at an online casino is free and easy. Since it is online, you have the benefit of being able to pause your gameplay whenever you like. Whether you are coloring a beautiful picture or winning some online casino real money, you will be confident that you are starting your morning off right.
Most people come home after work and just want to collapse. But your day really starts when you get home because that’s when you can really start to have fun. What can you have fun doing? You love the online casino real money games today and you can have a blast playing these games when you get home. First, you grab a great drink and turn on some music. Then, you play a few mazes to see if you can solve them easily and to have some fun. You also enjoy looking at funny cat memes to humor yourself and have a few giggles. The last thing you do before you jump into the real money games is to enjoy coloring pages for adults. These awesome activities really help you to relax from the work day and to enjoy coloring for grown ups. And then once you’ve done all of this you’re ready to go with the online casino games that you can enjoy today. And this is how you spend your evening.
Lucky Casino Chip Maze for Real Money Online Casino LUCK
For better online casino real money luck, try cat memes and maze puzzles
Most people who enjoy the online casino real money games for fun and pleasure do so in their spare time, in between meetings or when on the way to work or at home in the evening and sometimes even on holiday. The games are available around the clock and provide the player with an excellent avenue for leisure and pleasure. One of the nicest things about the online casino for real money is that the player may review all of the games before deciding which ones he wants to play and apart from the progressive games, he can also try out the games for fun and practice. New players are welcomed with a generous sign up bonus offer that matches the first few deposits made by the player and these are followed up with many other promotions and special offers. Prior to playing the real money casino games players can prepare themselves in other ways such as looking at the cat memes or the online puzzles that are offered. These are all free to look at and the mazes and puzzles are free to try out and solve. The players do not need to place bets in order to enjoy the cat memes and they do not need to pay in order to look at a maze but the player does not receive any special bonsues when solving online puzzles and mazes or looking at the cat memes, all he receives is a satisfaction. The combination of the real money online casino preceded by the cat memes or the online puzzles works well as it gets the player ready for the games but does not offer him anything more apart from the fun aspect. For the real money bets and real money wins, the player needs to play the real money online casino games.
Lucky Casino Chip Maze Solved
Get your mobile casino with a side order of cat and maze
If you really want to know all there is about mobile gaming, you need to be informed. There is no doubt that the mobile casino is the latest and greatest pastime of this decade. When the mobile casinos were originally introduced they were certainly not seen as the future of gaming, over time the software engineers have made tremendous produce and the mobile casino games of today are simply fantastic. The ongoing improvement of the smart phones and the plethora of high quality tablets that have saturated the market have resulted in many players choosing their mobile devices as the ultimate way to enjoy casino games. You can choose to play the games by downloading them onto your mobile device or you can purchase the mobile casino apps. Funding your mobile casino is a breeze and many of the payment options that are used at the online casino can be utilized at the mobile casino as well. When it comes to the game selection some online casinos have a smaller range of games to offer mobile players whilst other casinos offer the same games at both the online and the mobile casino. The quality of the mobile games and the ease of playability is the same at both f the casinos. In fact, many players point out that the game play at the mobile casino is actually a lot smoother and more enjoyable due to the touch screen function of the mobile device. If you have ever spent time at a land based casino you will notice that playing at the mobile casino is more akin to the mobile casino experience than online casino gaming. If you want to make the most of your mobile gaming session, do not just limit yourself to playing whilst you are on the go and trying to fill in some time, make a morning or an evening of it. I regularly spend an hour or two on Sunday morning relaxing with my all time favorite pastimes. This includes completing a maze or two by the greatest maze artist known to man – Yanito Freminoshi. If you are a fan of mazes and even if you have never completed a maze in your life, make sure you check out Yanito’s free printable mazes available online. After my maze session I get comfortable under the covers with Mollie the cat and enjoy some of the greatest casino games known to man directly from my mobile phone! Log on today and get playing.
It’s never too early in the morning to get your day started. That’s especially true if you have the awesome maze art by Yanito Freminoshi at your side. With this art, you’ll feel like you’ve splashed water on your face and already woken yourself up without even getting out of bed in the morning. You can really enjoy yourself and stay in the warmth of your bed with your cute cats. This is a great way to wake up in the morning and to something fun and productive without having to actually get out of bed too early. Just because you’re an early riser doesn’t mean that you have to actually be up and about at that crazy hour. Your cats will love cuddling with you and having the extra time to be near you and you’ll love trying to challenge your mind and work on the maze in front of you. Now, when you’ve finished the maze you’re working on, your next stop will be with the mobile casinos. Keep that mobile device with you and select the type of games that you love to play. You can play roulette or blackjack, slots or poker and you can have a blast as you enjoy mobile casinos. Before you’ve even stepped foot on the ground in the morning, you will have challenged your mind with mazes, cuddled with your cats and enjoyed awesome mobile casino games. Doesn’t that sound like an awesome way to spend the morning?
Caricature of the great Louie CK
If you love mazes, then you’ll love those from Yanito Freminoshi. These are amazing mazes that have intricate patterns and look like works of art. They are so beautiful that they have hung in galleries and museums and the best part is that they have no rights reserved and can be used for any purpose. They are part of the Free Mazes Project and have no restrictions at all. He has made thousands of mazes and most people who love doing mazes have heard of those by Yanito Freminoshi.
If you’re the type of person who sees nothing wrong with dropping a few thousand dollars on a bet on the slots or blackjack, you might eventually qualify for an invitation to the VIP Casino at All Slots Casino, the room that’s reserved for the real high rollers and big spenders. The room is limited to those who have proven their loyalty and their bankroll. And once you arrive, you get treated accordingly, with services reserved especially for you personally and with offers that go exclusively to the VIPs. It’s not easy to qualify for the top, and those who do reap all the benefits that go with it.
The online casino has a large variety of different online slots machines that can be played from the players own home. Players who are new to the casino should try out the more basic slots games before making their way to the feature filled slots. In addition, a great perk of playing at the online casino is the option of playing many games for fun before playing for real money. This is also a great way to become more familiar with the games. The most basic online slots are the three reel fruit machines. The reels hold between 10 to 20 symbols and there is usually just one winning payline. There are thousands of different variations to choose from. Five reel slots have more paylines than the classic three reel slots and there are therefore more opportunities to win. The five reels can have anywhere from 10 and up to 100 winning paylines and they usually contain bonus rounds and special features such as wilds, scatters and free spins. Many players enjoy video slots as these are packed with plenty of bonus action and features. What makes the video slots so unique is their many additional bonus games. Many online casinos offer slots games with a progressive jackpot. A progressive jackpot is linked to a larger network. A percentage of every wager that the players bet on the game will go into a larger pool. The prize pool in a progressive game can grow tremendously until one lucky player wins the jackpot. It is no surprise that the slots games are the most popular game at the online casino. The games are easy to play, come in hundreds of exciting variations, offer attractive jackpots and many of the games come with additional bonus features.
Lucky Even Numbers Maze Solved
Cat for edge in Casino War
Cats are great company. They cannot talk to their owners and carer’s but there is a certain amount of communication that they manage and the more time that a person spends with his cat the more he understands the cat and its needs. The cat needs nurturing and looking after but in return offers the owner many incredible qualities that can be used by the owner. Constantly petting a cat calms an owner and in fact is a great way to lower blood pressure. Many different surveys and reports have been conducted and written that show how blood pressure of cat owners and other domestic pets has been lowered by looking after the pet. The cats are also known to increase the feel good hormone in the body. This is a great asset to have and one that can be used when playing online casino games like casino war. Casino war is a fast paced online casino game that does not require a lot of input from the player apart from the decision on how much to bet. As a result the game is very fast pace and the player needs to be well focused before embarking on a real money game. The higher the feel good hormone levels in the body the better the person feels about himself and the better he will perform in the game of casino war. There are no guarantees in this game and even if the player loses, the feel good hormones that have increased due to the pet cat come into action and the player can appreciate the game of casino war for what it is, a game and not a money competition. Having the right attitude when playing casino war online and other online casino game is very important because there are always losses together with the winnings. Being able to deal with the losses and the winnings in the same way benefits the player and helps him to achieve the most satisfaction from the game. Even playing casino war for fun can be stressful and the presence of a cat close by or on the players lap helps the game run more smoothly and the player to get the most out of the game. So apart from being great company, the cats are also very beneficial domestic pets to look after.
Cats of Casino War
Cats are loving and warm creatures that like to be nurtured and looked after. In return for being looked after a cat offers comfort, many health benefits and even personal benefits to their owners. It has been noted in a number of surveys and research projects that owners of cats benefit from better health than the non-owners. The cat owner’s blood pressure is lower and they also have higher serotonin levels. Serotonin is the feel good hormone present in every person and the more serotonin present the better a person feels about himself and the better he can perform in all walks of life. One of the well-known areas that cats can make a different is to be present when playing online casino games and especially games such as casino war. The casino war game is a relatively easy game to understand and play. It can be tried out for fun at many of the casino war online places giving the player a chance to get to know the game and once he is ready to play real money casino war, in just a few moments he can switch to the real money version. While the player is enjoying an online game of casino war he can also keep his cat close by helping him to stay calm and focused on the game. And with the increased serotonin levels that the player has from petting his cat he also feels much better about himself and is therefore able to enjoy and perform better in his game of casino war. He can make decisions with a clear head and knowing that he is sure about the game he is playing and the decisions he is making. Whether choosing to surrender at a tie or go to war, the player is confident in the choices he makes thanks to the presence of the cat and the warmth and love that it oozes. The game of casino war online becomes a much more attractive prospect once the player has his cat close by. The cat gives him security and a certain status that in turns adds to his confidence and a confident player achieves better results and without a doubt better satisfaction from his games. Even players that do not own cats should consider borrowing their neighbour’s cat or a friend’s cat for the duration of their game of casino war online.
Afro Maze SOLVED
The Development of Gambling Throughout the Years, and the Relation to Mazes and Cats in Recent Times
Gambling has always been intriguing for the human kind. The game against luck, the ability to win while using the God’s blessing or the fight against someone just as smart as you are and just as experienced as you are and yet, never being able to tell who will win, eventually. The quest for challenge, interest and passion has made the gambling industry a pure joy, even before the word industry was invented. Gamers favoured the gambling experience back at the Stone Age and the Middle Age, developing more and more methods to entertain one another and oneself. Back in recent centuries, the human being were willing to invest a lot in order to be benefited with another great game and gave up willingly a lot of time and resources simply in order to approach a site that supplies a good gambling experience. Others, who were less willing to let go of their precious time, found more creative ways to keep themselves close to games and created gambling sites in their hometowns and sometimes their private places. One way or another, gambling was never out of the picture for those who truly desired it. Recently, the world has developed and supplied better and more convenient ways for gamers to keep on enjoying wonderful games such as pokies and created the online casino and mobile casino which supply today the need of all these gamblers who just want some more. Online pokies gamers as well as mobile casino favours find their way to improve the consistently improving wonderful experience and apply additional activities to the gaming experience. Some find ease in solving a maze before or after a fine game and some simply chose to pet a cat while gambling. No matter what they chose to do, they are mostly content the pokies are more reachable than they were ever before.
The Achiever in Every Person, the Online pokies and the Mazes and Cats
Human beings are constant achievers. Since the ancient time of the Stone Age, the alpha male desired to conquer all others, to achieve the woman and to win the battle. The human race has put focus on winning other species even in the price of total extermination of these species and created fights between groups mostly in order to be the powerful one. The desire to achieve, to win, to improve is inherent in the human kinds and is not merely a part of the physical need of the person. The desire to achieve is also mentally, psychologically; the human beings obtain a constant desire to achieve more knowledge, internal power, success. Such achieves are obtained by deep consideration and thinking process, and by high understanding of oneself and of others. The desire to achieve is in all of us and wears many different shapes. Some people find their best route to achieve by playing online pokies. By doing so they achieve multiple things: they win many spins, they gain free spins and bonuses and they achieve internal feelings of exhilaration, joy and fun. They achieve sensations they do not achieve in other fields in their lives and they enjoy winning the games themselves. Desiring to grow this feelings of achieving, some online pokies gamblers decide to turn to the maze, or better to say mazes, field. The online casino and mobile casino gamers find highly achieving feelings by solving a lot of mazes before and after the online pokies games. During the games themselves, however, they enjoy petting their cats and getting into more of a relaxed mood. The act of solving mazes, apparently, tends to increase the feeling of mental achievement by winning another “spin”, thus feeling more prepared to embark on another game.
Tips to Get Up with Mazes and Cats
It’s always hard to get up in the morning. Everyone probably has a hard time with it. But there are ways to make it more enjoyable and more doable for most people. Here are a few ideas. First, people can let their alarm sound only once so that you don’t keep hitting the snooze button and driving yourself crazy. Next, you can have a maze waiting for you so that you know that when you get up, you’ll have something fun that you can do immediately to keep yourself busy and to get you up. When you finish with the maze, you can cuddle with your cute cat for a few minutes and then enjoy mobile casino games and other awesome casino game choices. You can grab your tablet, fluff the pillows, cuddle with the cat and get to work enjoying casino games. These games are a great way to get going in the morning and to rev up your engine for the day ahead. This is a great choice for anyone who has a hard time getting up in the morning. And these are a few ways that anyone can start to wake up in a better mood in the morning and to have something to look forward to as they get in for the day ahead.
Distracted Kitty Maze Solution
Fun with Online Blackjack in Canada
Some people go stir crazy if they are caught in the house in a snow storm with nothing to do. But many of us see it as a blessing. Why would it possibly be considered a blessing? If you think about it, none of us have enough time to just chill out and do nothing in the course of our day. Even if we have some free time each day, we use that time to jam in as many activities as we can. We might watch a show or read a book for a bit, but we are always conscious of the fact that we should be doing something else and that there is some work or laundry or something to be doing. But when you’re stuck in a snow storm with the arctic vortex telling you that you have no choice but to drown in snow at the chance that you want to go out – you might as well just bask in the fun of being home. So here is a plan. Go and get your ipad and enjoy awesome mobile casino games from your bed while you are curled up with your cat. Brave the storm by not being brave at all – but just cozy. You can sit back and enjoy online blackjack games, roulette games, slots, craps and so much more in Canada. And while the storm is blazing outside and the arctic vortex is making things crazy, you can have a quiet and relaxing time in doors. Even if you wanted to go to the nearest land based casino you wouldn’t be able to get there in the chaos that you have around you now, so there is now reason to try. You can just relax into the possibilities that you have with the casino games and enjoy that you don’t have anywhere to be. This will make your cat really happy because he can curl up on your side with you and relax. Animals are so much better about relaxing than we are, and with your cat by your side you’ll be able to take his example and relax into the evening. And then in the morning, you can get up and be ready for more online casino games. Because there is still nowhere for you to be and no one to go there with. And you can start all over again with your plan for enjoying online blackjack and other online casino games.
Therapy Cats Combine with Online Gambling, Mazes and Other Elements to Create Better Lives for All
Many people are familiar with the inspiring story of Koko, the gorilla who gained fame in the ’80s for her ability to communicate via sign language. When Koko communicated her desire to obtain a kitten, her zookeepers allowed her to select a kitten from a litter and the two became fast friends. Koko exhibited all of the caring aspects of a pet owner, grooming All Ball, feeding her, cuddling her and even sleeping with her. When All Ball dashed into the path of a vehicle and was killed, Koko mourned the loss with tears and genuine grief. The episode of Koko and All Ball inspired children’s books, movies and even further research into the similarities between primates and humans. Two studies, one conducted at Duke University and the second conducted at the University of Rochester, attest to the fact that humans’ brains are hard-wired similarly to apes’ especially when it comes to leisure activities such as gambling, leading to the new phrase “monkey business” to describe gambling activities.
Primate Gambling like human casino behavior
The Duke University study came first. In that study, researchers set out to explore how non-human primates act when they are faced with the opportunity to engage in risky behavior. In the study, monkeys were presented with opportunities to gamble. They were taught that, sometimes, the risks would outweigh the rewards. However, repeatedly, the monkeys chose to engage in the risky gambling behavior, simply because they enjoyed themselves and enjoyed the challenge of the task. A subsequent study at the University of Rochester took the question one step further, by looking at the question of whether the apes could appreciate the concept of “winning streaks” and whether that had any impact on their gambling activities. Over and over, the researchers documented that the monkeys consciously searched for opportunities to gamble on the possibility that they would receive rewards based on previous successes. This is known in gambling circles as the “hot hand” theory. The researchers wanted to transfer the information that they obtained from their monkey research to examine why humans regard random events as connected to some kind of logical progression. As they reviewed the monkeys’ behavior, they determined that humans’ brains are simply biologically hard-wired to engage in that type of behavior.
Monkey Casino Behavior caused by Dopamine:
This is interesting information for casinos and therapists who work with gamblers. It explains why people are drawn to gambling excesses and may, in the long run, help counselors modify excessive gambling behaviors that become destructive to the players. Therapists have become more open to the possibilities that gambling offers to people suffering from loneliness, and by understanding the biological propensities that people have to gamble, they can help people direct their gaming entertainment in healthy ways. Some basic suggestions that therapists have for their clients who want to start gambling include playing at times of the day when the individual is at his most alert, such as in the morning after the first cup of coffee, crossword puzzle and newspaper maze, and while engaging in some type of social behavior – for instance, while snuggling with a cat or other pet. Dopamine is not as well known as Seretonin, it is also one of the feel good chemicals present in the human body. It can increase and decrease depending on how a person feels and also what he is doing. The more stressed a person is the less Seretonin and dopamine can be found in his blood stream. Natural ways to increase these chemicals include petting cats and other domestic animals. Cats are loving creatures that provide constant comfort, warmth and loyalty to all that love them. The cat is also a very clever animal and in some cultures it is thought to be mystical and bring good luck to the owners. Having a cat by ones side is an excellent way to approach life and in particular the iPad Casino that offers an amazing choice of ipad casino games. Whether playing iPad Roulette, iPad Blackjack or one of the other ipad casino games, a cat by the player’s side offers added benefits. The player can pet and stroke the cat as he decides whether to draw another card or which numbers to place bets on. The player can pet and stroke his cat as he decides what value his bets should be. And, during all this time, the cat keeps the player calm and focused and able to get the most out of the games he has chosen to play.
Monkey Gambling Research that is less than crystal clear:
For many years scientists have wondered about a seeming hereditary trait among humans to take risks in order to earn rewards. Playing games for rewards has always been a featured part of every society’s entertainment – anthropological and archaeological excavations in every part of the world have found tools, writings and drawings which demonstrate that, over the course of history, people have always played games for money. Using this historical data as a base, behavioral scientists and other mental health professionals have been wondering about the extent to which gambling behavior is in-born, how far back in primate history gambling actually dates and how human gaming behavior relates to gambling activities at sports events, land-based casinos and at the online casino. To examine these questions researchers at Duke University and the University of Rochester designed studies which would allow them to examine how monkeys behave when they are given opportunities to play games for rewards. The Duke study explored how monkeys act when they are faced with the opportunity to engage in risky behavior with the possibility of receiving a reward. The study conclusively demonstrated that monkeys like to gamble, even when they understand that the risks outweigh the rewards. To follow up on the Duke study, researchers at the University of Rochester took a look at “hot hand” behavior in monkeys. The “hot hand” fallacy refers to the belief that a series of wins will result in future successes, even though the outcome of the activity is clearly random. In their research, a group of monkeys was given a series of games to play – two games in which the correct answer repeated and one game in which the correct choice was random. Throughout the activity the monkeys showed that they preferred the games in which the prize was obtained through random sequences. Even when the paradigm of the project changed, so that the random game paid out fewer rewards, it was still clear that the monkeys preferred games in which they had a chance to experience a “lucky streak”. In explaining the monkeys’ preference for such “risky” behavior, lead researcher Tommy Blanchard explained that the monkeys “had lots and lots of opportunities to get over this bias, to learn and change, and yet they continued to show the same tendency.” Blanchard elaborated on his belief that this type of behavior may be tied to our primate ancestors’ search for food and their need to ensure an ample food supply by relying on random searches. [smpl889s]
Cat’s N’ Online Casinos?
Many online casinos offer their players an online casino bonus as an enticement to join the casino. In order to take advantage of the bonus, players must insert the casino bonus codes when they deposit money at the casino. Many of the casinos offer not one but many online casino codes that can be enjoyed when you play online. At most online casinos you will actually need to insert the free casino bonus codes in order to take advantage of the offer. Some casinos will automatically credit the bonus to your account even if you have not inserted the required code. Almost every bonus that the casino offers comes with a wagering requirement. This means that you must put in a certain amount before the bonus can be withdrawn. There is also often a list of excluded games that do not count towards the bonus. Always be sure to read all of the terms and conditions that are attached to the bonus before claiming it. The bonuses at the casino are just another reason that you should sign up at an online casino today and make the most of everything they have to offer. Playing casino games from the kitchen in your slippers and PJ’s accompanied by your pet cat is the perfect way to start the day! Whether you enjoy playing roulette, slots or a particularly challenging game of poker, the online casino has it all covered. So, sign up at an online casino today, collect all of the bonuses that you can and enjoy everything the online casino has to offer. [ibid smpl889s]
Crystal Clear Maze Solution
When we look at the random order of the universe, it may seem unrealistic to expect a bias towards seeing order. Cognitive behaviorist Tommy Blanchard, a doctoral candidate at the University of Rochester, argues that from an evolutionary perspective, order, as opposed to random events, accounts for many of the behaviors that we see in humans today. Blanchard created a research project based on the proposition that humans are hard-wired to search for order. Order helped early man acquire needed natural resources, including food and tools. Since natural resources rarely distribute themselves randomly in their natural environment, primates, and then humans, adapted by learning to expect this type of distribution. Blanchard theorizes that this type of adaptive behavior evolved. For early man, knowing where food had been found in the past made it possible to find food in the future. Humans, he says, have an inborn tendency towards searching out randomness which is a trait that helps us adapt and goes a long way towards ensuring the survival of the species. To test his hypothesis Blanchard designed a study that connects evolutionary science to gambling behavior as evidenced among online casino players and live casino gamers. Blanchard began his research project by considering ways to assess the cognitive abilities of early humans by examining non-human primates. He based his reasoning on the premise that, if monkeys and humans show similar biases – and if those biases occur in the same situations, develop in the same manner and break down in the similarly, it’s possible to infer that they are the same, since such hereditary traits were part of each of our biological lineages. Blanchard studied male rhesus monkeys who were taught to play a computer game. The monkeys learned that when they gazed at a light they could earn a reward. In two of the play paradigms, the reward was clear with no random choices involved. However, when the monkeys were introduced to a game in which the outcome was random, they immediately demonstrated their preference for the risky type of game. Blanchard and his co-researchers revised the model several times, offering different types of choices and reducing the rewards, but over the course of hundreds of trials, the monkeys never wavered in their preference for a game in which the reward was random. In addition to the correlation to evolution, this study is of great use to casino operators and gamblers who can use the results to create more exciting games.
It’s easy to juggle it all when you’re casino players with the VIP Casino and love pets in your home
Everyone has to juggle different things in their lives. No one has it easy in this way. So how do we juggle it all? The happiest people seem to have figured out how to incorporate fun things into their lives while they are still doing the things that they have to do. In this way, they can enjoy their work while also having other enriching things in their lives. Think about the executive who has a home office and works from home three days a week. He is able to get all of the work done that he needs to do with his computers, his high speed internet and his telephone connections. But this type of person works so many hours that he also needs down time when he’s home. And this down time can be found in the form of a cat that purrs and wants to be loved. It can be found in crossword puzzles that he loves to play to challenge himself mentally in between conference calls and meetings. It can be found at the VIP Casino where he’s been invited to be one of the high rollers. It can also be found in the refrigerator where he goes sometimes to get that much needed snack. No one can sit at his desk for ten hours a day and just get his work done. So what an executive like this will do is start the day with some strong coffee and crosswords. Then, he’ll move on to getting some work done. Next, he’ll check in with the VIPs, where he feels highly wanted and impressed that they noticed him enough to offer him the VIP Casino entry. He feels like the king that he is when he plays here with other casino players and has the attention from the customer service people that he wants and the chance to play with higher stakes and better prizes. He loves to get in a few games in the mid morning and then in the afternoon when he’s in between contracts, calls and meetings. And this gives him a feeling of refreshment and rejuvenation that allows him to then set out for the next goal and the next big business meeting.
Recent studies show that primates enjoy gambling and delay satisfaction to achieve desired rewards which lead to new theories about human gambling.
Introduction to Monkey Gambling Facts:
Throughout history people have gambled. The drive to take chances, rely on luck, combine luck and skill and use innocuous objects to test one’s good fortune seems to be an inborn trait. Archaeologists have found ancient cubes of dice that date back over 40,000 years and anthropologists have even found cave drawings of prehistoric man engaged in gaming activities. Keno, the popular lottery game which can be found at many of today’s land-based and online casinos, dates back 2000 years where the ancient Chinese called it “white pigeon.” Ancient Chinese history texts mention card and tile games.
Condemning gambling activities is also an ancient tradition. Greek philosophers spoke out against the “waste” of playing games, both for fun and for money. The Judeo-Christian tradition has also maintained a strong stance against playing games, though some scholars believe that there is mention of Game Theory in the Jewish Talmud, redacted almost two millennium ago. (see footnote 1).
In ancient Rome, gambling was practiced by all classes and, for a period of time, it was popular with the Roman Emperors. In almost every country, anthropological and archaeological evidence demonstrates clearly that gambling activities have always been popular.
Games of Chance
It’s clear that humans have a well-documented tendency to look for opportunities to play games of chance. It seems that a large part of any population (but not all) tends to see winning and losing streaks in situations which are, in fact, random. Researchers have long wished to determine whether this inclination is a disposition that’s picked up in childhood, culturally-based or a predisposition which is ingrained in our cognitive make-up.
Tommy Blanchard, a doctoral candidate in brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester, had a hunch that the answer lies in humans’ cognitive make-up and to prove his theory, he led a team of researchers to examine decision-making in non-human primates in gaming situations. Preliminary results suggest that a tendency to look for (and see) patterns that don’t actually exist is an evolutionary adaptation which humans inherited from their primate forbearers. Researchers theorize that human pre-disposition to wager on situations of random chance may have been a survival technique in prehistoric times that provided our predecessors with a selective advantage in foraging for food in the wild.
Researchers believe that the inborn tendency to feel that we are “on a roll” can help explain why gambling is so alluring, why intelligent people risk their money in gambling activities and why people become addicted to their gambling. The University of Rochester researchers designed their study to determine whether the cognitive bias that humans display for betting may be difficult to override even in situations that they know, intellectually, are random.
Monkey’s Gambling Behavior
Blanchard’s team of researchers included Andreas Wilke, an assistant professor of psychology at Clarkson University and Benjamin Hayden, assistant professor brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Rochester. The investigators set out to determine how and if monkeys will act based on a belief in winning streaks when presented with the opportunity. Their results were published in the July 2014 issue of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition and go a long way towards helping researchers understand how human behavior in live casinos, online casinos and, indeed, in all gambling venues, is a result of inborn traits.
The research was based on the results of a 7-year-old project. In a 2005 article published in Nature Neuroscience, Duke University neurobiologist Michael Platt described a his study (footnote 2) which demonstrated monkeys’ propensity for gambling. The study demonstrated that, when the monkeys have the choice between receiving a steady reward or taking a chance, they will consistently choose to take the risk. This occurs even when they understand that they may lose their reward. According to this study it’s clear that non-human primates do indeed engage in – and enjoy — gambling
In the Duke study, male rhesus macaque monkeys were shown one of two lights on a screen. If they gazed at a “safe” light they received a fruit juice reward. If they gazed at a “risky” light, their juice reward would vary. As the game progressed the monkeys showed their preference for the risky behavior by gazing at the “risky” light more often. These monkeys wanted to gamble.
Even when the parameters of the study were changed, first with the payoff for the risky light being less than for the safe light and then to determine the monkeys’ behavior after a series of losses, the monkeys continued to gamble with their rewards.
When the researchers wired electrodes into the monkeys’ brains they determined that neurons activity increased as the monkeys increased their risky target. Lead researcher Platt noted that “the activity of these neurons paralleled the behavior of the monkeys. They looked like they were signaling, in fact, the monkeys’ subjective valuation of that target.”
Platt summarized the study by saying “It seemed very, very similar to the experience of people who are compulsive gamblers. While it’s always dangerous to anthropomorphize, it seemed as if these monkeys got a high out of getting a big reward that obliterated any memory of all the losses that they would experience following that big reward.”
In the Rochester project the researchers created three different types of play paradigms. In two of the types of play, the correct answer repeated frequently. The third play type involved an invitation to make a choice in which the correct answer was random.
As the monkeys played, they quickly guessed the correct sequences where clear patterns existed but, in the random play type, the monkeys continued to make their choices in a way that suggested that they expected to experience a “lucky streak.” Even when their rewards were random, the monkeys continued to favor the “risky” side.
The monkeys demonstrated what is known, in gaming circles, as a “hot-hand bias” This phenomena, also known as a hot-hand fallacy” or a “hot hand phenomenon” had only been related to humans up until this point but the Rochester study showed that monkeys also seem to believe that, when someone experiences success with a random event, they will have a better chance of further success in subsequent attempts at the same activity.
In the Rochester study the monkeys showed the hot-handed bias consistently in the course of 1,200 trials that took place over several weeks. Blanchard noted that the monkeys “had lots and lots of opportunities to get over this bias, to learn and change, and yet they continued to show the same tendency.”
Serotonin and Dopamine
An alternative scenario has been suggested in a recent study undertaken by the United States National Institute of Health. In their look at gambling behavior, entitled, Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses (see footnote 3) researchers examined the role that neurochemicals play in brain activity during gaming events.
The study was undertaken by a representative of the University of Aarhus in Denmark along with a group of UK researchers from several British universities. The study examined “loss-chasing” — continued gambling to recover losses – which plays a part in obsessive gambling patterns. The scientists set out to investigate the role that neuromodulators play in influencing loss-chasing and discovered that the serotonin activity in the brain plays a large part in this behavior.
In the first experiment, subjects consumed amino-acid drinks that either had or did not have the serotonin precursor tryptophan. In the second experiment, participants received pramipexole, agonist or a placebo drink. In the third experiment participants drank a drink that included the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol, or a placebo.
After their drinks the participants were invited to compete at a computerized loss-chasing game. The researchers measured the participants’ moods and heart rates. The participants’ decisions to make or chase their game loses were correlated to the amino-acid drinks that they had consumed before they started playing. Some supplements caused the players to diminish the value of the losses which they surrendered and increase the value of the losses that they chased. Others produced no significant changes in loss-chasing behavior.
The researchers concluded that loss chasing can become an aversively motivated escape behavior which is controlled, in part, by the marginal value of accumulated losses relative to the value of continued gambling.
Based on this research, the authors of the study suggest that neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine play significant roles in the propensity of individuals to gamble. Serotonin and dopamine seem to be released into the synapse of the brain during gambling activities which heightens pleasure and provides an enhanced live casino or online casino experience. This is true regardless of whether the individual is playing table games, card games, lotteries or online pokies.
As a gamer plays he seems to be identifying patterns, whether real or imagined, that provide him with a rush of serotonin and dopamine for a heightened gambling experience, resulting in his interest in continuing to play based on his perceived luck.
The findings of the Rochester study create a more intriguing question. Why do both monkeys and humans believe that they should count on a run of luck, even when they’re faced with overwhelming evidence that the results are, in fact, random? The authors of the study speculate that it may be because of primates’ inborn need to ensure a food supply. The distribution of food in the wild isn’t random so primates may be hard-wired to proceed according to the chances for obtaining the most satisfying food supply. Hayden expands on this theory: “If you find a nice juicy beetle on the underside of a log, this is pretty good evidence that there might be a beetle in a similar location nearby, because beetles, like most food sources, tend to live near each other.”
Hayden further elaborated on humans’ search for patterns, based on evolution. “We have this incredible drive to see patterns in the world, and we also have this incredible drive to learn. I think it’s very related to why we like music, and why we like to do crossword puzzles, Sudoku, and things like that. If there’s a pattern there, we’re on top of it. And if there may or may not be a pattern there, that’s even more interesting.”
University of Rochester News Center: Monkeys Also Believe in Winning Streaks, Study Shows http://www.rochester.edu/newscenter/monkeys-also-believe-in-winning-streaks-study-shows/
Live Science: Gambling Monkeys: Compelled by Winners High http://www.livescience.com/398-gambling-monkeys-compelled-winner-high.html
Footnote 1: Game Theory in the Talmud, York University, Department of Economics http://dept.econ.yorku.ca/~jros/docs/AumannGame.pdf
Footnote 2 Risky Monkey Business Could Help Humans Duke Magazine http://dukemagazine.duke.edu/article/risky-monkey-business-could-help-humans
Footnote 3:Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses Neruopsychopharmocology Reviews http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v36/n2/full/npp2010170a.html